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Tuesday, May 29, 2012

10 Commandments for Managers

  1. The Golden Rule is just plain Good Customer Service. Don't be rude to your customers, they are your bottom line. If you care, they will like your services more regardless if you are running a store, call center, or even if you are a civil servant. General rule of thumb: Treat others how you want to be treated.
  2. The Golden Rule is just plain Good Management. A good manager will ensure that her employees or associates are taken care of [breaks, lunches, restroom breaks, etc] and doesn't mock or scoff at those under them when they come with a real concern.
  3. Listen to those around you. Sometimes the best ideas come from customers or even employees. Remember, you have two ears and one mouth - to listen twice as much as you speak. Don't just hear their words, but really pay attention to them. Even if it isn't feasible to do what they are suggesting, you are in the very least showing that you care enough for their opinions to hear them out.
  4. Being combative when somebody criticizes gets you nowhere. All you are going to do is alienating those around you and making yourself out to be the bad guy. It is completely unnecessary. Be professional about your objections and how you deal with people. Customers will always find something to complain about and employees will always find something about you - be it how you handle yourself and or the business, or even just on a personal level.
  5. Favoritism, nepotism, and anything like it is a huge no no! Giving favored positions to only certain people without any real cause is one more step towards a hostile work environment and promotes jealous behaviors. Never mind it feeds the rumor mill. Moreover, it is incredibly unethical - unless that person actually deserves the position, reward, or favorable scheduling. Be aware, however, if you do reward a person with something for their efforts, it might be better to make it clear why you are doing so instead of being cloak and dagger about it.
  6. Be professional at all times, regardless of what is going on around you. Bad moods, bad days, and bad customers are not an excuse to take your emotions out on others around you. Keep that temper in check and remember that you don't have to take those people home with you [normally!].
  7. Appearances are important, so maintain, maintain. The art of a good presentation is in how well it is crafted, but also in how it is presented. One simply does not take a client to a garbage dump to sell them prize winning cakes. In just the same way, your business must be clean as possible and free of bad odors. If smiles cannot be met at the door, then a professional expression. That goes double for meeting with a manager or supervisor. If the manager looks like he just ate a crate full of lemons, then nobody will want to do business with him. Your attitude is every bit a part of your presentation.
  8. Good products equal good income. If you can maintain a good product - be it customer service in a call center, teddy bears on the assembly line, or even canned veggies on a store shelf - then you can guarantee people will tell other people and you will continue to get good business flow. It is just smart business. Maintain quality over quantity, but if you can have both, that is even better!
  9. There is such a thing as a bad customer. Learn to recognize and deal with them. In the old days there was an expression 'The customer is always right', except, it is not actually true. You cannot permit them to abuse your employees, nor steal, nor cause a belligerent stink. Some of these people have had a bad day, I understand that, but it is necessary to do what you can to placate them unless it is blatantly the wrong thing to do. A bad customer is one who is just trolling and looking for a fight. He is the kind of man who likes to scam you, or even outright shoplift by hiding smaller items within larger items to get them for free. They are the kind of people who are just spoiling for a fight and begin to verbally abuse [or physically assault! Don't let it get to this point!] you and your employees. If they will not leave the premises upon request, kindly offer to call the police to have them removed. There are a lot of things you should do for continued business and sales, but accepting abuse is not one of them.
  10. Power trips are not a good thing. Remember your employees and associates are more than tools to be used, they are real human beings with feelings. Lording your authority over them only makes you hated and viewed as childishly arrogant. It loses you respect, rather than garnering it. He who rules with an iron fist will find himself breaking his own hand. This is the epitome of a hostile work environment if you ask anybody else. It is highly important that you keep yourself in check every bit as much as you have to ensure your workers are kept in check. For the most part, with a few exceptions, people are fairly compliant and willing to work without the whip cracking over their heads.
Finally, I want to leave you this thought: A good manager knows that the bottom line [making money] is important, but taking care of those who rely on you [workers and customers] is paramount above all else. Everything else is just maintenance.

Liberty Justice

Checks and Balances

Well, I know that it has been pretty much a year -well just shy of it- since I have last posted. Heh, it is not for lack of material that has crossed my mind, but rather a myriad of excuses ranging from loss of interest in blogging for a while to general busyness to outright laziness on my part. I'll just go ahead and say it: My bad.

So generally, I have been waiting on the outcome of the hotly debated laws and such that has had everybody's tongues a wagging since I started this blog [probably even longer!] and I have weighed my two cents in previously, but let me approach it from the following angle: a simple story. A parable, if you will.

There was once a young man who was just graduated from college. He knew he had only about $400 in his bank account and that his current job only earns him about a net $2000 a month [to keep it simple, we won't address taxes], and that his existing budget was as follows:

$900 for Housing - he opted to rent because his credit is not quite good enough for a home loan as far as he is concerned. "A house can come later. I can always move if the rent gets too high and I won't have to pay for maintenance on this small place. Maybe in the future when I am ready to settle down and my credit is better."

$200 on average per month for basic utilities not covered by his rental agreement. "That's not so bad," he thinks, "I will just have to remember to shut everything off to keep the costs down. It is more environmentally friendly that way."

$200 on average for food, because he can't stand the thought of eating another meal of undercooked Top Ramen one more night, so he decides to cook for himself. "Okay, it isn't so bad as I could expect if I were to eat out all the time."

So that is so far $1300 from his paycheck. That is one tight budget. This is just on basic basic needs, not covering new clothing, travel expenses, and other secondary expenses. This leaves him $700 to deal with that. Fortunately, he still has his car that he got when he graduated back in high school and it still works. He would love to get a new one, but for now it will do. He only drives to and from work, in order to save on gas since his car is not one of those new PC cars that use alternative energies or energy efficient power consumption. In fact, it is a pickup that gets only about 18 miles to the gallon. That and it has a tank that is about 35 gallon capacity. He winds up using all of that in a given week and waits to fill up when it is getting on the "E" line. Gas prices being what they are, fluctuate pretty heavily given the market and other reasons [That is another story for another post]. However, on average, where he is, he can expect to be paying for is about $3.45-4.00 per gallon. So, with a 18 gallon tank he's paying about $62.10-72 per week! Assuming the worst case scenario, he budgets for himself a gas budget of $312 [$72 x 52 weeks/12 months]. WOW! That is a lot of money just to drive an older vehicle, isn't it? However, it only makes sense when your credit still isn't that established and you can't afford to buy a new used car! At least so he reasons. Either way, he makes do with what he has.

The young man is now left with a whopping $388. Well, that's not a whole lot, but it leaves some room for tithing, which is something he has been taught to do since he was a kid. For those who are not familiar with the term it can mean a couple of things. It all depends on how you view donating to your church or house of worship, it can mean something as simple as just putting a little bit of cash in the offering plate at church [to help them pay for the church's various expenses and ministries] or it can be the literal version of 10% of your income being gifted to the church [for same said reasons]. He is from the school of thought that does this literally, gifting to the church he grew up in and attends each Sunday a tenth of his income. That would be $200 in this case, for those of you who didn't already guess. Leaving him with a big fat $188 to work with. "That's not so bad!" he decides and it works for a while.

Some months he ends up with left over gas money and he starts to treat it like a windfall. It is, in a sense after all, extra money he didn't know he had. However, the sneakier bills that nobody told him about start popping up. His truck breaks down, so he has to get it fixed. $500! That is well over his original budget! So, what does he do? Well, he could do a few things:

A) He could open a credit card to deal with the repairs.
  • Pro: It is paid off all at once as far as the repair shop is concerned; it can help him to establish his credit
  • Con: It is a looming debt until paid off completely; He will now have to pay more money because it is borrowed and therefore interest is required on top of the original debt.
  • Additional Comments: Credit cards and loans can be good things IF and only if you pay them off as quickly as possible. Any late payments will hurt you more then it will help you in the end by lowering your credit score and making you less attractive to those who you need to borrow money from or even desire to be employed by.
B) If he has been chucking money at all into his savings, he can just pull what he needs from the savings account.
  • Pro: It is paid off immediately with no interest to be repaid; There is no risk to your credit.
  • Con: You will not have that money in your savings account to build up interest in your favor; It will take a while to recover the money in the savings account - easily 5 months or more.
  • Additional Comments: Depending on how much your car is worth and how old it is, it will be worth dealing with up front. You will have to be more conscious of your savings for a while, forgoing extras like eating out and such to repair your savings.
C) He could do a combination of both A and B, allowing him to build credit and pay it off immediately, therefore looking more valuable to future creditors, employers, and sales persons.
  • Pro: It addresses the need for credit, and the need to reduce the amount of costs required; It has the best of both options.
  • Con: You are still taking from your savings; If you forget to take that second step and immediately pay it bad from savings, you are going to get slapped with the finance charges.
  • Additional Comments: If you opt for this route, you will need to take care to keep a copy of your payment towards this in order to have evidence of payment. You will also need to ensure that you pay the creditor as immediately as possible so as to avoid the finance charges. If you have a loan or credit card that has high interest [which if you are starting out, then you will] then you might want to do this option. If you have a credit card that automatically charges you interest regardless if you paid before your bill, then you will still get stuck with the interest - but only for that single month if you pay that interest off immediately [but this is less common these days].
Now, if he can handle his expenses of this wisely, being inexperienced and only having the advice of those who have gone before him and the advice of the financial advisers on tv such as Howard Clark and all the advice he could get from magazines. Then, why can't the government do the same? Okay, granted, the money and costs they are dealing with are much broader with farther reaching consequences, but that doesn't change facts. If we were to free wield our own budgets and spend money we do not have, then we would wind up in jail for so much fraudulent checks and deep in debt beyond our means. This is why it is very important to consider all of these things as a lesson in personal and national budgeting. It is all about a matter of Checks and Balances.

For every minus, there must be a plus on the other end. For every cost, there must be a payment. And for every desire, there must be a prudent review if it will be worth the price. It doesn't matter, here in America, where you are from, how old you are, how young you are, or even what your ethnicity is - despite what you may have been told in the past. This is a nation where you have the power to become anything, start with nothing and become rich, and live in relative security that your freedoms will not be infringed upon.

In my final note I wish to say a few things. May we all remember the heavy cost that is paid for our freedoms. Let us not squander it, let us treasure it. Pray for our troops, support them, and honor them by respecting their sacrifices.

Friday, December 16, 2011


Our own country, regardless of the sanctity of the US Constitution, has signed into law a - courtesy of our very own President, Barak Obama, and US Congress - a law that allows them to detain anybody without due process on the grounds of suspected terrorism and sedition. Our very FIFTH Amendment forbids such actions. We must must MUST petition an end to this and vote out these traitorous men and women. They are the true terrorists in the guise of people we trust. This is inexcusable. There is a checks and balances system, but when it is slanted far too heavily towards one party, we find that things do not stay in check.

Another Vid
Another vid

It flies in the face of our Bill of Rights. As so far as I have read and watched, it flies in the face of in the very least the first and fifth amendment. It flies in the face of the US Constitution.

"The right of the people peaceably to assemble for the purpose of petitioning Congress for a redress of grievances, or for anything else connected with the powers or duties of the National Government, is an attribute of national citizenship, and, as such, under protection of, and guaranteed by, the United States." Justice Waite, United States v. Cruikshank, 92 U.S. 542 (1875)

"In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people." - Olive Branch Petition 1775 [the precursor to the Declaration of Independence]

"Amendment I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances." Bill of Rights

"Amendment IV

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized." Bill of Rights

"Amendment V

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation." Bill of Rights

"Amendment VI

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense." Bill of Rights


Section 1.
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." Bill of Rights

"The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it." US Constitution, Article 1 Section 9

"The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed." - US Constitution, Article 3 Section 2

"Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court." - US Constitution, Article 3 Section 3

Now, why do I care? Why should you? In the course of American history we have endeavored to seek and ensure basic human liberties and rights so that all citizens should have the right to due process, a fair and public trial, and humane treatment. Shouldn't it bother us that we would so gladly wave off our rights in exchange for something that may or may not provide us added security? Shouldn't it bother us that we are denying people the same rights we claim we are defending? This very night soldiers are dying for your freedoms, Americans. You should respect that life and not let him or her die in vain.

Snopes page on NDAA rumors


In reality it is easy to say 'They are fucking terrorists, they don't deserve freedom or rights.' Well, to a certain extent that is true, but without due process and evidence how do we know they are terrorists aside from the fact that somebody has said so? If a man were to commit a series of homicides in an act of spree killing, he would be granted due process. Even if in the eyes of the public he is already judged guilty. However, suppose for a moment that the man they arrest is not the one who did the spree killing. Well, the media will likely lambaste him and treat him very much the same way. He still gets due process. Why should it be any different for any other citizen, even if they should be a part of the increasingly violent Occupy Movement or worse? Should we not consider this a greater injustice by stooping to the level of Nazi Germany?


Now, I will play devil's advocate for the moment, stating why this should be law. Yes, it is very easy to deal with things this way. It is nice to be able to in black and white state that this action or that action is an act of terrorism. Occupy Walstreet's protesters have been getting increasingly violent and it is degrading from a peaceful protest to social unrest. Al Queda is also a great threat with moles hidden within our country. We should protect ourselves! We shouldn't have to fight on our own soil, but we must! Shouldn't we consider the terrorists as agents of invasion and or insurrection?

My take:

While ultimately both sides have strong arguments and I have only glossed over them in my above pro vs con summaries, I must say this is being handled completely wrong. We have existing laws and statutes in place to protect us and we just do not need such a strongly worded law put into place. I think that it violates the very principles and values of our nation. Our country's Bill of Rights and Constitution is being abused here and we must do something about it. While I agree that we need to protect our nation, we must put these men to a public trial. Even Saddam Hussein was tried publicly - even in his own nation. In this age of mass media and international news at our finger tips this topic has not been on the mainstream media for some odd reason. It is sadly suspicious. However, that said, we should make a good use of our abilities and existing rights. We can submit petitions, we can write our senators, congressmen, representatives, judges, and even our president. We can flood the media with our questions and concerns and evidences. We can do a lot of things, but we should not be silent when we are concerned. What shouldn't we do? We shouldn't act like a mass of morons fumbling awkwardly forward with no education on the matter we are approaching. We must approach with caution, care, and wisdom. We do not need to march in mass protests at this time. We do not need to act like that which we wish to protect ourselves from. We also do not need to adopt a state of defeatism and take it like a dog. After all, that same attitude is a big part of why gas prices are outlandish and uncontrolled. It is simply because we accept this as what should be. [More on how the fuel industry works in another post, however.] Whatever the case may be, we must be willing to pick a side and commit to it, but remember, ladies and gentlemen, we must remember the intent of the Founding Fathers and the very things that have created our nation as they are designed to aid us.

Thursday, July 28, 2011

Some personal thoughts regarding our freedoms

Our beginnings were humble. We who were born here can find it so easy to take this fact for granted in our generally affluent nation. We must take the good with the bad in our history. Yes, there were great injustices by today's standards, but if you view things through a historical and non judgmental lens, you will see why the history books are written with an idealistic and optimistic approach - compared to how we often feel. We, sitting in our sterile environments, take for granted the freedoms we have. Please, bear with me for one more serious post. After this, I will try to find something more fun to entertain you with. Of course, it wouldn't be a Free Speech blog without the blogger talking largely about the things that are important to them.

Freedom isn't free: A short history of our struggle for freedom and rights for all.

That is not just some phrase on a bumper sticker. Ordinary men, and some women, fought the Revolutionary War for Independence from the then oppressive British government. In 1812, we had to fight them again in a "second war of independence". We won. Later, after many years, the fight over the freedom of all men was fought in blood and ink, where upon at the head of the whole thing Abraham Lincoln proclaimed the freedom of Slaves. This was backed up by a Constitutional Amendment, no doubt after a great heated series of debates in Congress and the Senate. That was not the end. Even during this time Native Americans were still being mistreated in a series of backstabbing by certain members of the military and government. Black men did not get the right to vote, until 1870 - but the laws did not catch up with the 15th amendment [which covers all races, creeds, and 'colors'] until 1965. There were a great number of protests and other forms of attempts at convincing the government to be fair to them as well. Women did not get to vote the same as men until 1920 - some 50 years after black men. While the voting field was even by that point, there was a good deal of struggle and strife. Women were still treated as subservient creatures meant to bear children and care takers of the home. Blacks were treated as second class citizens in a very prejudiced world. And it wasn't just blacks, it was all non white races and immigrants. Workers suffered greatly with no protection until they formed Labor Unions and battled corruption - sometimes with loss of blood and life. They weren't protected by law until 1911, which did not mean things went smoothly. Then there was World War I. Why did we see that as a war we had to get ourselves involved in? Well, we didn't start out that way. We were isolationists - having no desire to interact with the outside world and its struggles. However, what changed all that was the simple fact we were not allowed to stay out of it. Our own CIVILIANS were being slaughtered by the German military back then. Every day men and women, not soldiers, were being killed while they were simply doing every day things traveling on boats across the Atlantic. This is the first, that I am aware of, terrorist action ever committed against the USA. When meditations and negotiations FAILED we were forced to join in WWI. That conflict over, we flourished for a time. Then ... the Great Depression happened. We whine and complain about our economy right now, take some time to read up on that horrible debacle. There are entire books written on it and documentaries if you don't want to bother reading it. We came through with the sweat and perseverance, and a lot of retooling of the system to help root out corruption. Then, WWII started. We did not jump in right away. Why? Because we did not want to be involved again. Our government did know about things going on over seas, just like before, but the feeling was 'It is not our war. We do not need to be involved. We don't want to know about the problems of others.' Even when

[Just because you think that our great grand parents and grand parents were gungho, please look at the context.]

Bill of Rights

Ok, this one is way too big to post in my blog, so I will only post the first part and link you to the site from which I got all of my information. It was a government site, so nobody can really criticize the source. After all, Wiki wouldn't be quite as reliable there.

The Preamble to The Bill of Rights
Congress of the United States
begun and held at the City of New-York, on
Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine.
THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution.
RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all, or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution; viz.
ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution.
The rest is here. Please, take the time to read it. It is amazing how many American Citizens do not know what rights we actually have. Knowledge is power.

Constitution of the USA

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Article. I.
Section. 1.
All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
Section. 2.
The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.
No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.
When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.
The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.
Section. 3.
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.
Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.
No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.
The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.
The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.
The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.
Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.
Section. 4.
The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of choosing Senators.
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.
Section. 5.
Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.
Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.
Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.
Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
Section. 6.
The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.
No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.
Section. 7.
All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.
Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States: If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.
Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.
Section. 8.
The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defense and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;
To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;
To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;
To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;
To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;
To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;
To establish Post Offices and post Roads;
To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;
To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;
To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations;
To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;
To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;
To provide and maintain a Navy;
To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;
To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;
To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;--And
To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.
Section. 9.
The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.
The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.
No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.
No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.
No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.
No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another; nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.
No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.
No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.
Section. 10.
No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.
No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.
No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

Article. II.
Section. 1.
The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:
Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.
The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner choose the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.
The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.
No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.
In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.
The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.
Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:--"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."
Section. 2.
The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.
He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.
The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.
Section. 3.
He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.
Section. 4.
The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Article III.
Section. 1.
The judicial Power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.
Section. 2.
The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;--to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;--to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;--to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;--to Controversies between two or more States;-- between a State and Citizens of another State,--between Citizens of different States,--between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.
In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.
The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.
Section. 3.
Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.
The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attained.

Article. IV.
Section. 1.
Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.
Section. 2.
The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.
A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.
No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.
Section. 3.
New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.
The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.
Section. 4.
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened), against domestic Violence.

Article. V.
The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

Article. VI.
All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.
This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.
The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

Article. VII.
The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.
The Word, "the," being interlined between the seventh and eighth Lines of the first Page, the Word "Thirty" being partly written on an Erazure in the fifteenth Line of the first Page, The Words "is tried" being interlined between the thirty second and thirty third Lines of the first Page and the Word "the" being interlined between the forty third and forty fourth Lines of the second Page.
Attest William Jackson Secretary
done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,
G°. Washington
  President and deputy from Virginia
Geo: Read
Gunning Bedford jun
John Dickinson
Richard Bassett
Jaco: Broom
James McHenry
Dan of St Thos. Jenifer
Danl. Carroll
John Blair
James Madison Jr.
North Carolina
Wm. Blount
Richd. Dobbs Spaight
Hu Williamson
South Carolina
J. Rutledge
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
Charles Pinckney
Pierce Butler
William Few
Abr Baldwin
New Hampshire
John Langdon
Nicholas Gilman
Nathaniel Gorham
Rufus King
Wm. Saml. Johnson
Roger Sherman
New York
Alexander Hamilton
New Jersey
Wil: Livingston
David Brearley
Wm. Paterson
Jona: Dayton
B Franklin
Thomas Mifflin
Robt. Morris
Geo. Clymer
Thos. FitzSimons
Jared Ingersoll
James Wilson
Gouv Morris

Declaration of Independance

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,
When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.
We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

The 56 signatures on the Declaration appear in the positions indicated:
Column 1
   Button Gwinnett
   Lyman Hall
   George Walton
Column 2
North Carolina:
   William Hooper
   Joseph Hewes
   John Penn
South Carolina:
   Edward Rutledge
   Thomas Heyward, Jr.
   Thomas Lynch, Jr.
   Arthur Middleton
Column 3
John Hancock
Samuel Chase
William Paca
Thomas Stone
Charles Carroll of Carrollton
George Wythe
Richard Henry Lee
Thomas Jefferson
Benjamin Harrison
Thomas Nelson, Jr.
Francis Lightfoot Lee
Carter Braxton
Column 4
   Robert Morris
   Benjamin Rush
   Benjamin Franklin
   John Morton
   George Clymer
   James Smith
   George Taylor
   James Wilson
   George Ross
   Caesar Rodney
   George Read
   Thomas McKean
Column 5
New York:
   William Floyd
   Philip Livingston
   Francis Lewis
   Lewis Morris
New Jersey:
   Richard Stockton
   John Witherspoon
   Francis Hopkinson
   John Hart
   Abraham Clark
Column 6
New Hampshire:
   Josiah Bartlett
   William Whipple
   Samuel Adams
   John Adams
   Robert Treat Paine
   Elbridge Gerry
Rhode Island:
   Stephen Hopkins
   William Ellery
   Roger Sherman
   Samuel Huntington
   William Williams
   Oliver Wolcott
New Hampshire:
   Matthew Thornton